Something very exciting happened this weekend – a team of amazing talented women and I entered the 25-hour Hack Manchester 2018 hackathon, and we won Best in Show.
Category: Women in tech
There’s been a lot of interest in this talk, which I’m doing in various locations this year (details here). People have asked me to share slides, but I deliberately don’t put much content (ie text) in them, because I find it just distracts from the delivery.
So, here are some notes. And a couple of pictures of cats. 🙂
Making people feel stupid: What does it mean?
- People listen to what others say.
- They overhear them judging people for not being clever enough or not knowing enough.
- They internalise it. They worry that they will be next.
What’s wrong with me?
- Maybe you’re quietly judging me already. Maybe you’re thinking, she’s probably not very clever and doesn’t like it when she gets exposed.
- Maybe you’re right! I often think that about myself. But I have a maths degree, 18 years experience, I’m a tech lead with a major international consultancy, etc.
- So, that was me imagining that you might judge me for being stupid. Maybe you did and maybe you didn’t. But the point is, I imagined that you would. Because I’m so used to people in tech judging each other for being stupid.
- I’ve always felt there was something wrong with me because I struggle to understand things unless they’re explained in simple concrete terms.
- And yet I can do complexity.
- I can build complex systems out of simple parts.
- If anything, my flaw is a tendency towards too much complexity.
- …which is why I deliberately break things down into simple parts.
- …but I also forget complex terminology – I recall easier-to-remember equivalents instead.
- I have missed out on jobs because people were bemused by my apparent lack of expertise.
- I have been told in interviews that I wasn’t competent because I couldn’t respond to the kind of question that requires you to have memorised stuff.
Impact on the industry
- Facts, Figures, Statistics:
- There will be an estimated 1 million more computing jobs than applicants who can fill them by 2020. This figure was projected by Code.org, based on estimates from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics on job creation and separately, estimates of college graduation rates by the National Science Foundation.
- Only 11% of employers (US) believe higher education is “very effective” in readying graduates to meet skills needed in their organisations.
- Some 62% (US) said students were unprepared.
- US: There are more than 500,000 open computing jobs nationwide, but less than 43,000 computer science students graduated into the workforce in 2016.
- In 2016, the White House claimed the federal government alone needed an additional 10,000 IT and cybersecurity professionals.
- Source, March 28th 2017: https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/talkingtech/2017/03/28/tech-skills-gap-huge-graduates-survey-says/99587888/
- Hands up if you feel like other people are cleverer / doing things better than you?
- Impostor syndrome: “Somehow everybody has failed to notice how rubbish I am.”
- I hate – am almost incapable of – playing the game where everything is obfuscated and translated into a language that only the elite can understand.
- Ironically this means that my impostor syndrome is at least partially based around the fact that I don’t seem capable of doing the things that entrench everybody else’s impostor syndrome.
- I can hit the ground running, but I keep forgetting.
- I have to prove it to myself over and over again.
Scenario A: Meeting where people talk jargon & nobody understands
- Me: Hi, sorry I’m late.
- Them: It’s fine, we were just talking about the ARM processor.
- Me: Ah right, yes of course.
- Shit, ARM, I know I’ve heard of that before. ARM, um…
- [some stuff I don’t hear cos I’m trying to remember what ARM stands for]
- Me: “Look folks, I’m so sorry, but I’ve forgotten what ARM stands for?”
- Them: “Articulated retention matriculation.”
- Me: I have NO idea what that is. I’ll work it out as I go along.
- Somebody else: Actually guys, I think we should be considering AMRM at this point.
- Me: AMRM?
- Reply: Articulated meta-retention matriculation.
- [someone else, not me]
- That’s a very good point! We definitely need to get meta at this juncture.
- Oh God, I was only just following this, but now they’ve lost me. Meta? What does meta mean in this context? What does meta mean in any context? It’s one of those terms that always confuses me, I know that much.
- Oh well, I said juncture. I love saying juncture. It’s the perfect word for situations like this.
- [some stuff that Person2 misses cos they’re worrying about what meta means]
Diversity and Inclusion
- People want to fit in.
- Two effects:
- They use jargon to create a shared identity.
- They feel bad if they feel like an outsider.
- People will leave, or not join in the first place, because they feel excluded.
- This disproportionately affects under-represented groups.
- Stereotype threat: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotype_threat
- “…men in STEM subject areas overestimate their own intelligence and credentials, underestimate the abilities of female colleagues, and that as a result, women themselves doubt their abilities — even when evidence says otherwise.”
- Stereotype threat has been shown to reduce the performance of individuals who belong to negatively stereotyped groups.
- If negative stereotypes are present regarding a specific group, group members are likely to become anxious about their performance, which may hinder their ability to perform at their maximum level. Importantly, the individual does not need to subscribe to the stereotype for it to be activated.
- It is hypothesised that the mechanism through which anxiety (induced by the activation of the stereotype) decreases performance is by depleting working memory (especially the phonological aspects of the working memory system).
- Two effects:
Talking in jargon
- These insecurities cause people to increase the amount of jargon they use.
- They want to prove how clever they are.
- Their colleagues struggle to understand them, but they pretend they do, to avoid looking stupid…
- Complex impenetrable language is what people deploy as a kind of force field
- Weird vicious cycle: everybody obfuscates to protect themselves from potential exposure as somebody who doesn’t fully understand.
- In the process they confuse everybody around them, who in turn become terrified that somebody is going to notice that they don’t fully understand what’s going on, so they join in the game, make everything they say sound complicated, and so the cycle continues.
- There does come a point where you’ve been immersed in it for long enough that only some of it is confusing, and some/most of it makes sense.
- That’s quite a kick!
- You have to pay your dues to get to that point, and it feels good. You feel special.
- So you pull the ladder up behind you.
- You had to go up it, and so should everybody else.
- You’re in the club now, and you want to savour that.
- So you join with your new comrades in mocking those who still haven’t arrived.
- You make no concessions in your language.
- You’ve learnt what it means! It was hard! Why would you waste all that hard work and abandon your hard-won vocabulary by explaining things in simple terms?
- Explaining things in simple terms takes twice as long anyway.
- Giving the answer you think people want to hear:
- The hairdresser asked me whether I had straighteners and I answered Yes. Why? Because I felt like it was the “right answer”. I don’t have straighteners. I’m never going to manage this labour-intensive haircut I’ve been given.
Scenario E: When talking jargon feels good
- I felt all pleased with myself recently when I worked out how to join in with a hangouts conversation by using words like “discoverability” and “distinguishable”. I felt less insecure, and like I was now a proper grownup, a member of the club. But meanwhile there may well be somebody somewhere hearing nothing but “blah blah blah”…
- Is it sometimes ok?
- “I can’t spend my whole time teaching people, I need people who can hit the ground running.”
- Many people project a sheen of knowledge.
- Many limit themselves by seeking to preserve knowledge once they find it.
- People focus on their own experience – making themselves look good.
- But when they look at someone else, they have a different agenda.
- They don’t stop to wonder whether they have ever said anything “stupid” like that themselves – and if they did, WHY?
- Or they remember it full well and don’t want anyone else to remember, so distract attention by joining in with the attackers.
- We identify the things we CAN remember, then we fetishise them.
- We push them over alternatives.
- Not necessarily because they are better – just because we feel more comfortable there.
Definition of competent
- What really impacts on you and your team?
- Is it lack of knowledge?
- What does it actually take to be good at your job?
- What is the definition of competent?
- What is the definition of intelligent?
- “Be curious. Read widely. Try new things. What people call intelligence just boils down to curiosity.” – Aaron Schwartz.
People who are not techies are impacted too
- Examples of support staff, stakeholders, non-technical people… being made to feel stupid.
My personal experience – the happy story
- How I learnt to attack new knowledge outside my comfort zone.
- The irony is that my career – and my enjoyment of it – has improved dramatically since I started admitting ignorance.
Why Empathy is so Important
- “They only care about making themselves look good.”
- This in itself is judgmental.
- Think about how it feels like to be them!
- You can find yourself alienating others without ever having conscious malicious intentions.
- Other people know other stuff.
- Two effects:
- One: When they know stuff you don’t, you feel insecure.
- Two: When you know stuff they don’t, you can get impatient.
- Two effects:
Conclusions / Advice
- Maybe you see me as an idealist. Or maybe I’m a pragmatist. Over the years I’ve paid attention to what works in life and what doesn’t. What makes people ill, what doesn’t. These are all practical hints for survival.
- Does it actually matter how much people know? Industry constantly moving, people forget stuff.
- Some of the most important moments in my career have been the times I’ve realised that my colleagues are also confused.
- Eternal thanks to those that admitted it.
- People are often scared to admit confusion.
- I often don’t know what I’m doing.
- The range of knowledge in our industry is VERY WIDE.
- Don’t expect other people to know what you know, and vice versa.
- People forget things they once knew.
- If people don’t know enough, WHY is that? What’s deterring them?
- What would happen if we changed the rules?
- Focus on aptitude – recruitment becomes easier.
- Encourage people to explore and experiment and learn WITHOUT RISK.
- Stops people pushing less optimal solutions.
- Make explicit statements to newcomers to your team, at start of meetings, etc – have a policy towards curiosity – keep repeating that simple questions are ok, that mistakes are ok, that if somebody doesn’t know something it’s in the interests of the whole team to help them learn. Plus, active encouragement to give feedback if these aims are not being met.
- Tweet from Tim Post (@TinkerTim) re Stack Overflow:
- “You can’t work on problems that you’re unwilling to admit. Wanting help often means being vulnerable enough to ask for it, and that’s where we are. Let’s keep making the internet better, without hurting people in the process.”
- WE SHOULD ALL ENCOURAGE PEOPLE TO ASK QUESTIONS.
The Stupid Manifesto
LET’S STOP MAKING EACH OTHER FEEL STUPID. INSTEAD, LET’S…
- Have an explicit policy of curiosity towards all things
- Encourage each other to shout out if we discourage curiosity
- Ask what people NEED to know, not what they know
- Never judge someone because their knowledge doesn’t match ours
- Give our colleagues every opportunity to learn and explore WITHOUT RISK
- Give new people a chance to show us what they can do
- ENCOURAGE EVERYONE TO ASK QUESTIONS
- Acknowledge the broad range of knowledge in our industry
- Remember our industry never stays the same
- Remember we all forget stuff
- Lead by example: Be honest when we’re confused
- Focus on aptitude, not knowledge
- Remember what it feels like when we are still learning
- Prioritise clarity over jargon
- Remember this is not idealism, it’s pragmatism
- LET’S STOP MAKING EACH OTHER FEEL STUPID.
Useful resources and references:
- Stereotype threat: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stereotype_threat
- Delusions of Gender: Cordelia Fine
- April Wensel (@aprilwensel): Compassionate coding
- https://insimpleterms.blog/2017/10/16/advice-for-women-or-anyone-starting-a-career-in-tech/ – Advice for anyone starting a career in tech
- https://insimpleterms.blog/2017/10/13/resources-for-women-arriving-at-or-returning-to-it/ – Resources for Women Arriving at or Returning to IT
- https://medium.com/a-woman-in-technology – learning, teaching, women in tech, maths
(Image / comic by xkcd: https://xkcd.com/1053/)
“I know nothing.”
“I know less than nothing.”
“I am an impostor.”
“The more I learn, the more I realise how little I know.”
These are sentences that will be familiar to the vast majority of IT professionals. But how about these?
“They know nothing about X.”
“They have no relevant experience.”
“Wow, I just discovered my colleague doesn’t understand Y. I’m shocked.”
“Can you believe, I just interviewed this dev, and they didn’t even know what a Z was?”
Over my 18-year software career, those last two have been said to me countless times. They are said derisively, scornfully, impatiently. And every time those words are said, we lose both existing and potential members of our profession. We lose them because they feel stupid; because they believe they can’t keep up; because they have given up on ever really knowing what they’re doing; because they’re terrified that people are saying the same things about them.
We work in an industry where knowledge is highly valued, and where every time we look for a new job we have to prove how much we know. We find ways of posturing to one another, of proving how well-informed we are. Sometimes we join in when others’ knowledge is criticised – relieved that we are not the target ourselves.
And yet, we know that everybody has gaps. There are a million different paths through software development, touching a million different combinations of technologies and skills. On a day-to-day level we have to specialise on one task at a time. The skills we don’t need right now are necessarily forgotten, or delegated to someone else. And that’s fine.
If somebody already feels like they don’t “fit in”, then this kind of pressure and insecurity can be the final shove that persuades them to leave the profession or not try and join in the first place. Women and non-binary people, people of colour, older people, LGBT people and many other under-represented groups are strongly impacted by intellectual elitism. But of course, ALL software professionals are impacted.
Let’s stop putting pressure on individuals to know everything, and focus instead on how teams can work together to build and provide the unique combination of skills required to deliver their current project – in the certain knowledge that whatever that combination was today, it will be different tomorrow.
Instead of knowledge, let’s focus on aptitude. Instead of judging people about what they don’t know, let’s help them to feel excited about all the new things they’re going to discover.
Instead of saying “For God’s sake, do you really not know about X?” let’s say “Fantastic, you don’t know about X! Lucky you. That means you get to learn it. What can I do to help?”
(I’m hoping to do talks on this topic at events in 2018 – let me know if you have an event you’d like me to talk at).
This is a fantastic post by Sal Freudenberg, describing various experiences of sexism that women may have at tech events, and how they can react / what they can do about it.
(a series of tweets originally sent to @ArrieLay and stored here for posterity…)
Fake it til you make it. Always act like you know what you’re doing, cos You DO – You’re being imperfect, just like everyone else.
Pay attention to people. Focus on empathy. Learn to pair. Learn to collaborate. Celebrate and enable your fellow team members.
Always come to work as yourself. Don’t be afraid to show vulnerabilities, and give others space to show theirs too.
Take risks. Relish your uncomfort zone.
Remember that EVERYBODY feels insecure about their knowledge levels. It’s impossible to know everything, and everybody thinks they are disadvantaged because others know more than them.
Learn to embrace your knowledge gaps. See them as exciting opportunities to learn more. Never be ashamed of them.
Have a questioning attitude, be open about your excitement about learning more. People respond well to it and will help you learn.
Love people. Even the annoying ones. People are great. People are useful. People will help you, whether they mean to or not. 🙂
And for the older amongst us… Age is an advantage, not a curse. Find the wisdom you forgot you had. Age is money in the bank.
Here are some links to some helpful resources for women (or anyone) arriving at or returning to careers in tech: https://insimpleterms.blog/2017/10/13/resources-for-women-arriving-at-or-returning-to-it/
Just a bunch of links really, but hopefully useful…
- https://www.wherewomenwork.com/Women-Returner-Opportunities …
Mums in technology: https://www.google.co.uk/amp/s/www.mumsintechnology.co.uk/blog-1/2017/7/7/mums-in-tech-rada-in-business-debut-course-for-women-returning-to-work-return-to-work-with-impact-and-influence-takes-place-1st-and-2nd-august-supported-by-techuk%3Fformat=amp …
Tech Mums: http://techmums.co/about/
Equate Scotland: equatescotland.org.uk/women/
13 places where women can learn to code: https://learntocodewith.me/posts/13-places-women-learn-code/
Code First Girls: https://codefirstgirls.typeform.com/to/ks4bsj
Code First Girls professional courses: http://www.codefirstgirls.org.uk/female-professionals.html
- Codebar – free weekly courses
- freeCodeCamp: Learn to code for free
- Scrimba – learn coding for free in the browser
- Exercism – free coding with feedback from mentors
- Web Developer Roadmap – different routes to becoming a web developer
- Stairway to Orione – List of useful things to read / practise for becoming a great software engineer
- Maker’s Academy – highly selective 12-week courses, open to beginners
- Manchester Codes – Manchester(UK)-based part time coding bootcamp. Not free, but some scholarships available.
- North Coders – Manchester(UK)-based coding bootcamp. Not free, but some scholarships available.
- Meetup.com– Lots of meetups all over the UK & Ireland!
- https://codeyourfuture.co – Coding school for refugees
- http://tech.london/events/coding-for-everyone – “Coding for everyone”
- https://www.techworld.com/picture-gallery/careers/coding-courses-bootcamps-in-uk-3629316/ – 15 coding courses and bootcamps in the UK
- Code Club (www.codeclub.org.uk)
- Code Your Future (https://codeyourfuture.co)
- Barcamp (Manchester Barcamp)
- NorthWest Tech Events Calendar (UK)
- Hour of Code – free coding exercises
- Humble Bundle – a way of getting bundles of books and software cheaply, whilst also donating to charity
I’ve pulled this out of a larger discussion. The detail of that discussion is not important, but a thing happened there which often happens in many discussions in IT: The possibility was raised that some people might be less well informed than they ought to be.
It’s a bugbear of mine. I think it’s a hidden menace in the software industry so I wanted to put something here.
And no, I do NOT think the menace is that people in IT are ill-informed. Quite the opposite: I think the menace is that we constantly judge one another for being (we believe) ill-informed.
I am often reluctant to admit that I don’t recognise a piece of IT terminology, because I think I might be judged for that. I think it might lead to people taking me less seriously in the context of whatever the discussion is.
But here’s the thing: There are thousands of books out there. Thousands of principles and phrases which encapsulate software development principles. Every single one of us will have books that we have not read and yet which some of our fellow colleagues believe are crucial to a good understanding of software development. Every single one of us will have phrases and terminology we have, by whatever chance, not come across before, even though they may seem crucial to a particular colleague.
There is a temptation sometimes to judge one another for not having knowledge of a particular thing. This attitude feeds strongly into impostor syndrome and the insecurities we all feel about how well equipped we are to do our jobs. The solutions to this are:
a) To rejoice whenever we encounter somebody who doesn’t have knowledge of one of our favourite things. It means we get to introduce it to somebody new! Hurrah!
b) To not assume that just because somebody has not come across a particular way of framing a problem or solution, does not mean they do not have knowledge and understanding of the underlying principles.
c) To always always feel safe to admit any gaps we might have, as that encourages others to do the same. This means we all get to learn more and foster a culture of continual learning and experimentation, which is crucial to good software development.
d) To have faith in the fact that we are part of a larger community of seasoned experts. This compensates for the fact that there is NO SUCH THING as a fully informed individual. We all have gaps. But together we can inform one another and create a powerful force.
I attended a web foundation lunch a couple of weeks ago, around many issues related to data and ethics. I have to confess a lot of it went over my head. Since then I attended a talk by Cathy O’Neill which made some things a lot clearer to me. I’ve bought her book Weapons of Math Destruction, so hopefully I’ll have some more cogent notes after I’ve read that.
But in the meantime, here’s one small thought I had about algorithms and patterns:
As human beings we’re very good at identifying patterns, without thinking about it. So, if my experience is that the vast majority of women I see in technical meetings are admin staff, then whenever I encounter a woman in that context, I will guess that she is non-technical.
In a similar way, the machine-learnt algorithms are making assumptions and developing decision-making processes based on patterns identified in existing data. As human beings, we can train ourselves and each other not to make assumptions based on previous experience, and to be open to new possibilities. Is this also something which is / should be / can be built into machine-learnt algorithms?
What is the connection between unconscious bias and cognitive bias?
Unconscious bias is a term used to describe people making assumptions about sub-groups within society. They are not automatically conscious of those assumptions, or the impact they have on their own behaviour and reasoning.
So, for instance: Society – and my experience – has encouraged me to believe that women are not likely to hold senior technical roles. Therefore if I walk into a meeting of senior technologists and there is one woman present, I might assume she is there in some other capacity – eg some kind of administrative role. If you ask me whether I believe women are less capable than men of being senior technologists, I will say no, but my unconscious bias still leads me to draw unhelpful conclusions, and may cause me to treat this woman in a way I would not deliberately choose.
Cognitive bias is the phenomenon where people used flawed judgement to assess data. Those flaws are caused by the brain’s tendency to be biased according to various factors.
So, for instance, I may listen to two political arguments and assign greater validity to one than the other. I will believe that my assessment is based on rigorous logic whereas in fact, I am simply drawn towards the argument that confirms beliefs I already hold (this is called “confirmation bias”).
Another example is the gambler’s fallacy: If someone tosses a coin ten times and it comes down Heads every time, they might believe that it is more likely to land Tails on the next toss. In fact the likelihood is still 50:50, just as it always was.
Cognitive biases are a very heavily theorised & researched concept within psychology, whereas “unconscious bias” is just a description rather than a clearly defined technical term.
The two terms are related, because cognitive biases may well inform some of our unconscious biases, but they are not generally used in quite the same context.
Cognitive bias: http://io9.gizmodo.com/5974468/the-most-common-cognitive-biases-that-prevent-you-from-being-rational
Unconscious bias: https://www.brainpickings.org/2014/04/09/the-hidden-brain-shankar-vedantam/