Basic Rules of Modern Greek – I (you, she, etc), My (your, her), am, have (Pronouns and auxiliary verbs, conjugation)

Basic Rules of Modern Greek – I (you, she, etc), My (your, her), am, have (Pronouns and auxiliary verbs, conjugation)

I’ve been learning Greek!

This is one in a series of cheatsheets. Full list here.

PRONOUNS

If “they” refers to a group all males or male and female or its gender composition is unknown, αυτοί is used.

Εγώ I
Εσύ you (singular)
Εσείς you (plural)
Εμείς we
Αυτός he
αυτή she
αυτό it
Αυτοί they (male)
αυτές they (female)
αυτά they (neuter)

TO BE

Important note: the pronoun (Εγώ, εσύ) …is not always needed.

Εγώ είμαι I am
Εσύ είσαι you (singular) are
Εσείς είσαστε you (plural) are (or είστε)
Εμείς είμαστε we are
αυτή είναι she is (or he, or it)
αυτές είναι they (female) are

TO HAVE

Singular Plural
First Person I have – έχω (“echo”) we have – έχουμε, έχομε
Second Person you have – έχεις you have – έχετε
Third Person she has – έχει they (f) have – έχουν, έχουνε

First Conjugation Verbs

Many Greek verbs fall into this same pattern for changing their endings (or conjugating.)

We call this group of verbs the first conjugation verbs.

Here are a few more of them, given, as always, in the first person form:

I see βλέπω
I buy αγοράζω
I drink πίνω
I know ξέρω
I take παίρνω
I give δίνω
I eat τρώω

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS:

Person Pronoun (own one thing) Pronoun (own many things)
1st person singular (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) μου (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) μου
2nd person singular (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) σου (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) σου
3rd person singular (masculine) (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) του (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) του
3rd person singular (feminine) (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) της (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) της
3rd person singular (neuter) (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) του (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) του
1st person plural (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) μας (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) μας
2nd person plural (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) σας (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) σας
3rd person plural (Δικός/Δική/Δικό) τους (Δικοί/Δικές/Δικά) τους
(masc/fem/neuter) (masc/fem/neuter)

EXAMPLES:

Ο άντρας μου=My husband 

Ο δικός μου άντρας= My own husband (emphatic).

WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN Δικός, δική, δικό?

Δικός is used if the owned object is of masculine gender: Ο άντρας είναι δικός μου=The man is mine. 

Δικός becomes δικοί when the owned object of masculine gender is in plural. 

So, οι άντρες είναι δικοί μου=the men are mine.

Δική is used if the owned object is of feminine gender: Η γυναίκα είναι δική μου=The woman is mine. 

Δική becomes δικές when the owned object of feminine gender is in plural. 

So, οι γυναίκες είναι δικές μου=the women are mine.

Δικό is used if the owned object is of neuter gender: Το παιδί είναι δικό μου=The kid is mine. 

Δικό becomes δικά when the owned object of neuter gender is in plural. 

So, τα παιδιά είναι δικά μου=the children are mine.

THE DOUBLE ACCENT RULE

When μου,σου,του,της,μας,σας,τους comes after a word that is accented on the antepenult (second syllable from the end e.g. αυτοκίνητο), then it is accented also on the last syllable.

Example: 

το αυτοκίνητό μου=my car 

το ραδιόφωνό της= her radio 

η τσάντα του=his bag (no double accent here because the word τσάντα is not accented on the antepenult!)

2 thoughts on “Basic Rules of Modern Greek – I (you, she, etc), My (your, her), am, have (Pronouns and auxiliary verbs, conjugation)

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